Dynamic Linking & Nofollow – Practical Examples, Diagrams, + FAQs

In response to all the questions and comments I’ve received after my recent post on using nofollow with internal links, I’ve put together a few practical examples and a couple diagrams to better illustrate the concepts.

As I mentioned last time, slapping a nofollow on some of your internal links is not intended to remove pages from the index. In fact, what we’re trying to do is to get more pages indexed, by reducing the share of your site’s PageRank that flows to less important pages. I’ll begin with an example that illustrates this technique.

Moving “Overhead” Pages To The “Third Tier”

Close your eyes if it helps, but try to picture a typical eCommerce shopping cart site. You have a home page, several product categories, and products in each category. Your home page is the first tier in your site’s linking structure, the category pages are the second tier, and the product pages are in the third tier.

You also have several of what I call “overhead” pages on the second tier, like privacy policies, terms & conditions, shipping information, guarantees, contacts, price match promises, etc. It’s not unusual, in fact, to have more of these pages than you have product categories.

To make your users’ experience the best it can be, you probably have “run of site” links (on every page) pointing to all of the second tier pages.

The effect of this on the flow of PageRank should be obvious – the overhead pages on your second tier receive as much PageRank as your product category pages… and far more than the actual product pages. This is clearly an upside-down arrangement from an SEO perspective.

The diagram below illustrates a simple modfication that moves your overhead pages down to the third tier – this will drive more PageRank to your product categories, which pass it along to your product pages.


As you can see, we’ve “nofollowed” the run of site links to the overhead pages. We have a single site map page (directly linked from the home page) that passes PageRank on to the overhead pages.

In this simplified diagram, I’m not showing you “one way” and “two way” links… and I’m ignoring the third tier, which would also have “nofollow” on links to the overhead pages.

This structure allows you to get your overhead pages indexed (so they can appear in site: searches) without giving them as much weight as your product category pages.

What If The Overhead Pages Are A “Quality Signal?”

Some folks have expressed a concern that if search engines don’t find a “followed” link to these important overhead pages, they might consider your site to be of lower quality and rank your pages lower. I’ve never seen this actually happen, but I can’t say that this isn’t a legitimate concern.

If you are concerned about that, you can make some modifications, as shown in the diagram below. This time, I’ve shown the two-way linking relationship between the tiers, and added the third tier pages to the diagram.


In this structure, the home page passes PageRank to the second tier, which in a shopping cart site consists of overhead pages and category pages.

The overhead pages link back to the home page, passing some of the PageRank back, and they also link to the category pages on the second tier, passing some PageRank across.

The category pages don’t link back to the home page (they do, but the links are nofollowed), so more PageRank passes down into the third tier. The third tier pages link back to the category pages (and may crosslink, see below).

Mix & Match As You See Fit

Neither of the approaches I’ve illustrates so far is designed to remove pages from the index. The intent is to conserve the total amount of PageRank within the site, but to simply redistribute it to pages that matter more to us. The goal is to get more of our important pages indexed. By doing so, we can actually add to the total PageRank within the site, because every page has an intrinsic value.

Neither of these approaches is a “recommendation” for what you should do with a given web site. Every situation is different. Sometimes nofollow helps, but it’s not the only tool at your disposal, and not the only tool you can or should use.

Imaginary Real Life Scenario – PageRank Misses The Point

Imaginary real life. Sorry. Best I could do – this is based on a true story, but sanitized for your protection.

Let’s say that Joe runs an e-commerce store selling gardening equipment and supplies. Joe has 10 categories of products in his store. Most of the categories have a couple dozen products, but the “sprinklers” category has 85 products. Why? Because that’s what he needs to have in order to meet his customers’ needs.

Unfortunately, Joe’s having indexing problems. Google doesn’t have a problem picking up his other product pages, but he’s scratching his head over why they don’t want to index his sprinkler product pages. So he goes out to the forums for advice, and in no particular order, is told to:

  1. Rewrite the product descriptions in case they’ve been filtered as duplicate content. Done. No change.
  2. Submit an XML sitemap. Done. No change.
  3. Add content to the category page, in case it’s been filtered as duplicate content. Done. No change.

Experienced SEOs will already have spotted Joe’s real problem – it’s structural. The 85 product pages (plus 10 category links plus 15 overhead pages) add up to 110 links on his “Sprinklers” category page. The PageRank is just being sliced too thin, and the sprinkler product pages barely make the supplemental index if that.

So what can Joe do? Sprinklers are his most important product category – irrigation is the linchpin of good gardening after all. (OK, I made that up).

What if Joe “cut” the links between his product categories (2nd tier pages), by nofollowing the cross-links between his category pages? Except for the link to the Sprinklers category, which is left in place. The result: more PageRank for the sprinklers page, by borrowing a little from other pages.

Would this fix Joe’s problem? Well, it might, but it might also borrow too much from the other pages and create indexing problems elsewhere. That’s why you have to do the math, or do this stuff a little bit at a time.

Joe could also “fix the structure” (without using nofollows) by splitting his Sprinkler category into 3 or 4 categories, and if this actually increases sales, I’m all for it. That’s another option, but if it doesn’t add something to conversion / usability, Joe would be insane to do it simply for SEO reasons…

Don’t “Break” Your Site Over SEO!

In my experience (which goes back to the birth of Netscape as a browser), you never need to harm usability & conversion in order to accomplish an SEO goal. There’s always another way. Nofollow is a tool that can help.

We’ll talk more soon.

How To Get More Pages Indexed With Nofollow

I knew Chapter 4 of SEO Fast Start (on site structure) was going to be just a little bit controversial… but it really shouldn’t be. In this post I will briefly give some facts about where we are, controversy-wise, just to get you up to speed. I hope that a brief statement of the facts and a little explanation will help you filter out the noise that’s going around about this subject.

The timing is interesting, because I had already planned a tutorial for this week, on the pros, cons, ins, outs, and reasons for using "dynamic linking" (nofollow is just a tool) within your site… then a great new tool was released that makes the whole thing a lot easier… and along comes the sound and fury of controversy to make it "topical."

If you’re not interested in the controversy and just want to learn how to use nofollow, don’t worry, because I’ll get to the meat pretty quickly. (If you don’t know what nofollow means, you may want to read the book first).

The Nofollow Controversy Rages – But Why?

Google’s reps have been telling us for over a year that it’s OK to use nofollow on your own internal links, although they usually emphasize that it’s not good for guaranteeing that a page will not be indexed, since they may find other links that aren’t nofollowed. This is actually an important feature that we make full use of in dynamic linking, BTW. Anyone who tells you that using nofollow means removing pages from the index simply doesn’t understand it yet.

Last week, Rand Fishkin published an interview with Google’s Matt Cutts. Matt repeated, in plain English, that it’s perfectly safe to use nofollow on your internal links, to control the flow of PageRank within your own site. I thought this would end the controversy, but Rand’s interpretation of Matt’s comments left an opening for the semantic parsers of the world to pick a fight.

Rand’s words: 

Nofollow is now, officially, a "tool" that power users and webmasters should be employing on their sites as a way to control the flow of link juice and point it in the very best directions.

If you replace the word "should" with "could" then nobody would have a nit to pick… but he did say "should" so let me deal with that.

The Big Question – Should You Use Nofollow?

My answer to this question is an unqualified "maybe!" I can’t really stand behind that answer with pride, because it’s no kind of answer at all, so maybe I should explain a bit more…

In SEO Fast Start, I answered "yes," but the implementation is very limited, because while the "fast start" method is intended to be a framework for all SEOs, the book itself was primarily written as a beginner’s guide.

So for beginners, I described a very minimal implementation that involves nofollowing some links to "overhead pages" like privacy policies, contact info, terms & conditions, etc. This is a "play it safe" approach, which should at least deliver some benefits.

Once you get past a very minimal implementation, it’s very easy to screw things up. So, if you don’t truly grok how PageRank works, you probably don’t want to mess around with it. Although I did outline several "advanced" nofollow & dynamic linking techniques in the book, I claim no responsibility for your ability to understand PageRank.

The #1 Goal Is To Get More Pages Indexed

Before I go any further, let me explain why you might want to control the flow of PageRank within your site. It boils down to one major goal – index penetration. If you can get a little bit more PageRank to your most important content, by taking some away from less important content, you just might be able to get more of your pages into Google’s index. That’s it – that’s the key point. Getting more of your important pages indexed.

If you expect to funnel so much extra PageRank to your "money pages" that they will leap to the top of the rankings, then you’re probably dreaming, because you can only accomplish so much with changes to your site structure. The primary impact on your "money pages" will come from getting more of your other pages indexed, because the additional pages can be used to link (with appropriate anchor text) into your money pages.

Now, if your site is so small that you could literally link to every page from the home page (<150 pages), the minimal implementation (as described in Chapter 4 of SEOFS) is about all you’d ever want to do. Likewise, if your site has very little PageRank coming in from external links, then you probably have bigger fish to fry, so do the minimal implementation, if that, and get to work on more important stuff.

If you have a large site, with a lot of sitewide links to "overhead" pages, and you’re having a hard time getting your deeper pages indexed, then changes to your site structure can make a big difference in how many pages get indexed. One of my students worked through a major site restructuring last year, and went from a few hundred to over 1000 pages indexed – with significant gains in traffic and sales.

The Real Issue Is Site Structure – Nofollow Is Just A Tool

No matter what your situation, the key question isn’t really about nofollow at all. The key question is whether you can improve your position with search engines by changing the internal linking structure of your web site. Most of us can do at least a little bit better, because it’s very unlikely that you’ve developed the optimal structure by chance.

Once you’ve decided to make changes to your linking structure, it’s really down to making choices about the methods you’re going to use. Using nofollow allows you to "cut" links out of the PageRank calculation, without taking them away from users. This makes the nofollow attribute a handy tool, because you can make some kinds of structural modifications transparent to your site’s users.

For the sake of usability, you probably want links to your privacy policy, shopping cart, terms & conditions, contact information, etc. on every page. In fact, you may want some of those pages indexed (contact information) because people do use site: searches to find that kind of information… the question is whether you want those "overhead pages" to be more important (have more PageRank) than your real content (product pages, etc.)

How PageRank Flows Inside Your Site

PageRank, to misquote a friend of ours, is a very subtle beast. PageRank attempts to decide which of the pages you’re linking to are more important, by simulating a "random surfer" who blunders around the site, clicking links. The more times the random surfer stumbles across a given page, the more PageRank it has.

When this random surfer does his work at the scale of the web, the result is wonderful. Important web sites and even particularly important pages (those cited frequently on the web at large) end up with more PageRank. It’s a good thing. Link spam influences it to a degree, but you’d have to be one hell of a spammer to get more PageRank than, say, Amazon.com. Link spam probably has a lot more influence because of anchor text than it does on PageRank. You can hate Google if you like, but PageRank is a beautiful innovation.

Anyway… back to the point.

One of the "subtle things" about PageRank is that the amount flowing out of a page is divided up between all the links on the page. If there are 10 links, each one gets one tenth. If there are 100 links, each one gets 1% of the PageRank that flows out from the page. So removing a link means that the other links carry more weight. If one out of every five links points to an "overhead" page, then 20% of your PageRank is flowing into pages that you don’t really care about very much from an SEO perspective. But you need those links, don’t you?

PageRank works great at the scale of the web, but not so well once it gets inside of your web site. That’s because your web site will have a lot of links that you need for accessibility, usability or legal compliance, which lead to pages that aren’t especially interesting or important. Nobody "out there" on the web is linking to your "earnings disclaimer" page, but if you have to have one, you probably have to link to it from every page on your site.

It actually helps to understand this if you put yourself in the position of the spider, and pretend you’re standing on the home page, faced with dozens of links that all look the same. To borrow from Crowther & Woods, it appears to be "a maze of twisty little passages, all alike."

Unless you do something about it, the overhead pages on your site get more PageRank than they really deserve. You can remove these overhead pages from the index by using robots.txt or a robots meta tag, but completely removing them actually reduces the total amount of PageRank inside your site.

Completely blocking spiders from these pages also means that they can’t be found by visitors using a site: search, so it’s not the greatest thing you could ever do for usability – what if someone is trying to find your privacy policy, or searching for your fax number?

Nofollow Gives You Some Control Over PageRank Flow

I say "some control," because nofollow isn’t a magic swiss army knife. It’s just a tool. If you think of every link on your site as a valve that pushes some PageRank on to the next page, nofollow simply lets you turn some valves off. This increases the amount of PageRank flowing through the remaining links. By "nofollowing" the links to your overhead pages (except, perhaps, from your sitemap) you move more into your important pages. It’s that simple.

The total amount of PageRank that you have to play with is a function of how much is coming in from the web (mostly), and how many pages you have indexed. You can get more, but no matter how much you get, it still has to be divided up between the pages on your site. Nofollow can’t create more PageRank than you already have, unless you actually get more pages indexed.

Because of the way PageRank flows, your home page will normally have a lot more than your "second tier" pages, which will have a lot more than your "third tier" pages. So although nofollow can help you increase the share of PageRank that flows into each tier, if you want a specific page to get the most possible PageRank, you have to link to it from pages that have some to share – like the home page, many second tier pages, etc.

If The Whole Thing Gives You "Tired Head," You’re Not Alone

Thinking about this stuff wears me out… actually doing the math is even more of a beating.  If you’re like me, you’ll do the simple stuff and then move on. If you really want to get hardcore about it, you’re going to need tools… I’ve built them on my own in the past, and I wouldn’t dare share the kind of spaghetti code that I write with the world.

Fortunately, there is a tool out there that you can use… and it’s free (ain’t the web cool?). Halfdeck (of SEO4Fun) has recently released a free tool called the PageRankBot that will spider your site and map out the distribution of PageRank. He’s labeled it badly as a supplemental results detector, because it’s actually a lot cooler than that. There will be some work involved in installing it, and I am not on board for tech support. With that caveat, it can be all kinds of fun to play with once you get it running.

He even used it to simulate a ‘3rd level push’ – sort of (I don’t think he cut the links from the second tier to the home page and left the sitewide links in place), and simply by playing around realized that the "sitewide" links were holding him back from getting more PageRank deeper into the site. It would take you a lot of time to do that without a tool – with it, he sorted out a better PageRank distribution in an afternoon.

To Learn More: Read Chapter 4 of SEO Fast Start – It’s Free

With apologies to our guests, most of the folks reading this have already downloaded SEO Fast Start… so rather than repeat it all here, I’ll refer you to Chapter 4 of SEO Fast Start. The book is free, but if you’re not sure that it’s worth the few minutes it would take for you to go download it, you can read my explanation here.


(PS – I will never buy the idea that Google’s just trying to trick us into revealing our sites as "SEO’d" – I think they can spot the kind of SEO they care about by looking at the anchor text of inbound links)

How To Get Pages Out Of Google's Supplemental Index (SI)

About Google’s "Supplemental Index" – and how to get pages (URLs) out of it.

If you don’t know what the "SI" is, crack open your copy of SEO Fast Start and begin reading at page 51.

If you have pages in the Supplemental Index, here’s how to remove them, step by step. These instructions assume you have fewer than 1000 pages on your site. If you have more than that, read them, follow them, and then watch this space for further instructions on how to troubleshoot a larger site.

1) Start by going to www.google.com, and clicking the "Advanced Search" link to the right of the search box. In the advanced search form, select "100 results" from the drop down menu, and type your domain name in where it says "Only return results from the site or domain." Then click the Google Search button.

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Linking Out, Nofollow, And Common Sense

It’s probably all my fault… in trying to simplify site structure as much as possible, I seem to have left a few folks confused. If you haven’t actually read SEO Fast Start, go read it, because the rest of this won’t make as much sense otherwise. In particular, Chapter 4.

So let me say one thing, loud and clear: I do not recommend putting nofollow on all outbound links. I am sorry that Aaron Wall decided to pull a quote out of context. I don’t have a beef with Aaron, because he is a very busy guy, he did me a favor by taking the time to read the book at all, and he invited me to comment and clarify. Aaron is one of the good guys, and if he misunderstood my intent, then a lot of people did.

When I wrote SEOFS, I was thinking, for the most part, about business web sites. While working on Chapter 4, I should have thought a little more about sites like blogs, where a big part of the plan is to link to other stuff you’ve found on the web.

Now, with that lens in mind, let me walk you through the strategy again, with some comments:

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